online education

Career Growth Through Distance Education

Distance learning is a form of education in which the instructors and students are separated in space and time. Lifelong learning possible through the distance education. Distance learning degree programs are more accessible to hopeful students across the world.

This learning occurs when students are separated from their instructor and classmates, across the hall or even across the province. The past courses depended entirely on written communication through the mail, but today’s distance courses include multimedia materials and always take advantage of web-based communication technologies.

The success on the shoulders of the faculty. In the traditional classroom setting, the responsibility of instructor includes assembling course content and developing an understanding of student needs.

Through on line course management system, the distance education courses offer a quality learning experience, flexibility and convenience. Distance courses are good option for many individuals of all ages who desire to get an education. It holds several pros and advantages over a traditional learning environment.

Advantages of distance education:

Choice: This is a good choice to acquire knowledge without losing your career

Flexible: Compared with traditional learning, this is more flexible.

Effective: The distance education is more effective when compared with traditional classroom style of learning..

Scheduling: The schedules are more open and are a comfort zone for working professionals.

Save Money: The cost is low when compared with traditional classroom learning.

Some popular colleges present in India are

Higher education is a needed factor in order to compete with this busy world. Educational qualifications are helpful to improve your career growth level. Various educational courses for degree or pg courses are available. Sikkim manipal distance education offers globally acceptable certificates. The requirement of any distance learning program is likely to have a connection to the Internet. Also the technologies like forums, e-mail etc also help to acquire knowledge. Online courses include all PG and degree courses like BBA, MBA, BCA, MCA, PGDBA etc. Online course is a revolution in the field of education. This is a good challenge to the traditional structure of higher learning.


Mcse Courses In The Uk Considered

Because you’re looking at information about Microsoft MCSE’s, the chances are you’re in one of these categories: You could be considering a complete career change to the world of IT, and you’ve discovered a massive need for properly qualified people. On the other hand you could already be in IT – and you want to enhance your CV with the Microsoft qualification.

Always make sure you check that the training company you use is educating you on the most up-to-date Microsoft version. A number of trainees are left in a mess when it turns out they have been studying for an old version of MCSE which will require an up-date. A company’s mission statement must be based upon doing the most for their students, and the whole company should care about their results. Working towards an MCSE isn’t simply about qualifications – the process should be all about assisting you in working on the best action plan for your future.

With so much choice, is it any wonder that nearly all trainees have no idea which career they will follow. How can most of us possibly understand what is involved in a particular job when we haven’t done that before? Often we don’t even know anybody who is in that area at all. Deliberation over many areas is most definitely required when you want to expose the right solution that will work for you:

* Personality factors plus what interests you – what kind of work-centred jobs please or frustrate you.

* Do you hope to reach a closely held aim – for example, being your own boss in the near future?

* What scale of importance is the salary – is an increase your main motivator, or is job satisfaction a lot higher on your list of priorities?

* Considering all that IT encompasses, you really need to be able to absorb the differences.

* You should also think long and hard about what kind of effort and commitment you’re going to give to your training.

To cut through the barrage of jargon, and find what’ll really work for you, have an informal meeting with an industry-experienced advisor; a person who will cover the commercial realities and truth while explaining each certification.

So many training providers focus completely on the certification process, and avoid focusing on why you’re doing this – which is of course employment. Always begin with the end in mind – don’t make the vehicle more important than the destination. It’s quite usual, for instance, to thoroughly enjoy one year of training and then find yourself trapped for decades in a tiresome job role, as an upshot of not doing some decent due-diligence when you should’ve – at the outset.

It’s well worth a long chat to see the expectations of your industry. What particular exams they will want you to have and how you’ll build your experience level. It’s definitely worth spending time assessing how far you reckon you’re going to want to go as it will present a very specific set of accreditations. Seek help from an experienced professional who ‘gets’ the commercial realities of the area you’re interested in, and is able to give you ‘A day in the life of’ synopsis of what duties you’ll be performing during your working week. It’d be sensible to discover if this is the right course of action for you long before you jump into the study-program. There’s little point in starting your training only to realise you’ve made a huge mistake.

The perhaps intimidating chore of landing your first job can be relieved by some training providers because they offer a Job Placement Assistance programme. Don’t get overly impressed with this service – it’s quite easy for eager sales people to make too much of it. At the end of the day, the still growing need for IT personnel in the United Kingdom is the reason you’ll find a job.

One important thing though, don’t procrastinate and wait until you have completed your exams before bringing your CV up to date. As soon as your training commences, list what you’re working on and place it on jobsites! Many junior support jobs have been offered to students who are still studying and haven’t even passed a single exam yet. This will at the very least get you into the ‘maybe’ pile of CV’s – rather than the ‘No’ pile. If you’d like to keep travelling time and costs to a minimum, then it’s quite likely that an independent and specialised local employment service may be more appropriate than some national concern, due to the fact that they’re going to know the local job scene.

In a nutshell, if you put as much hard work into landing your first job as into training, you’re not going to hit many challenges. Some students inexplicably put hundreds of hours into their training and studies and then just stop once they’ve passed their exams and seem to suppose that interviewers know they’re there.

Locating job security these days is very unusual. Companies often drop us from the workforce with very little notice – whenever it suits. Security can now only exist through a fast increasing marketplace, driven forward by work-skills shortages. It’s this alone that creates just the right environment for a secure marketplace – a more attractive situation all round.

Offering the IT market as an example, a key e-Skills survey demonstrated major skills shortages around the country in excess of 26 percent. This shows that for each 4 job positions in existence across computing, we’ve only got three properly trained pro’s to fill that need. Properly taught and commercially grounded new professionals are as a result at a complete premium, and in all likelihood it will stay that way for many years to come. In actuality, retraining in Information Technology throughout the coming years is very likely the greatest choice of careers you could make.


Ccna, Ccnp, And Ccent Cisco Practice Exam Questions: Binary Conversions, Ospf Asbrs, And More!

Let?s test your skill in binary conversions, OSPF ABR and ASBRs, and other vital Cisco certification exam topics!

CCNA and CCENT certification:

There is a range of addresses reserved for multicasting. Take the absolute highest number in that range and convert it to a binary string.

Answer: The range is –; the binary representation for that last address is 11101111 11111111 11111111 11111111.


What command will show whether a router’s neighbors are or are not an ABR or ASBR?

Answer: show ip ospf border-routers.


What command places a physical switch port into a logical bundling of ports?

Answer: To place ports into an Etherchannel, use the port-channel command.


What is “signature tuning”?

Answer: Signature tuning is simply the process of editing a signature, most likely changing the action taken when there’s a signature match.

CCNP / ONT Exam:

You’re configuring Priority Queueing. How many queues exist by default, and how many packets can each queue hold?

Answer: There are four default queues – High (20), Medium (40), Normal (60), and Low (80). These are configurable. For example, the following command will double the Normal queue’s capacity while leaving the others unchanged. Even if you’re just changing one queue’s limit, you still have to name a value for each queue.

Below, I’ve used IOS Help to show the order in which the queue sizes are defined. The bolded command is the final command.

R3(config)#priority-list 1 queue-limit ?

High limit

R3(config)#priority-list 1 queue-limit 20 ?

Medium limit

R3(config)#priority-list 1 queue-limit 20 40 ?

Normal limit

R3(config)#priority-list 1 queue-limit 20 40 120 ?

Lower limit

R3(config)#priority-list 1 queue-limit 20 40 120 80 ?

R3(config)#priority-list 1 queue-limit 20 40 120 80

Look for more CCNA, CCENT, and CCNP practice exam questions on my website, and on this one as well!

online education

Chinese Lessons Online – 6 Benefits Offered by Online Institutes

Learning a new language is always a great addition to your resume. Chinese is one of the most popular languages on the planet and taking Chinese lessons can certainly give you an edge when it comes to getting international-based jobs. Furthermore, it is always fun to learn something new and by taking up a course on a new language you also get an insight into the local culture of the country. Now, one can easily take up Chinese lessons online. Internet has come to the rescue of those who always grudge shortage of time for personally attending classes at schedules times. With online lessons, you can learn the language right from your home and at a time you desire. You neither have to run from pillar to post and nor do you have to cut down on your other professional or non-professional activities.

There are some excellent institutes that offer Chinese lessons at very affordable costs and with all convenient facilities. These institutes offer numerous benefits which are enumerated below:

i. Comprehensive learning experience: Online courses offer you comprehensive courses so that you can become fluent in the language and become a master of Chinese grammar and accent.

ii. One-on-one teaching method: It has been seen that the student gets the maximum benefit in one-on-one learning method. Most websites offer one-on-one experience wherein you can get private attention from a tutor who looks after all your individual & custom requirements. Those who fail to pick up a new language in a classroom-based environment can certainly learn fast under this proven process.

iii. Flexibility: Chinese lessons online can be taken at different time slots and thus you enjoy a lot of flexibility. According to your convenience and leisure hours, you can select the slot which will suit you the best. Teachers are always available at different slots including morning, evening and night.

iv. Native teachers: It is highly recommended that you learn Chinese only from a teacher who is a native to the country. Only a local native can help you perfect the art of Chinese grammar, usage, vocabulary and accent in a very short time and in an error-free manner.

v. Recordings and assessments: These certified institutes make audio-video recordings of all the tutoring sessions. These recordings can be perused by both the student and the teacher. The student can recapitulate the lessons taught to him during his spare time, while the teacher can use them to assess the progress of the pupil.

vi. Learning at your own pace: Chinese is a completely new experience for many. These institutes conduct classes on Chinese lessons to cater to different students. One can learn at his own pace. A weak student can take his time to pick up the finer points of the language while a smart brain is allowed to progress at a quicker speed.

Taking up Chinese lessons online can be both educational and enjoyable. These lessons can make you get a strong grip on a new language in just a few weeks. Dedicated and sincere teachers will look after your every need and you can definitely help yourself on the social or professional level by adding another linguistic skill to your kitty.


Online Degrees A Growing Popularity And Credibility in Recession

One thing that the Great Recession has taught us, it’s that good education is valued, even during the toughest of times. While some may doubt the wisdom of investing in a college education in these recessionary times, the statistics show that the unemployment rate for people with bachelor’s is half the overall rate of unemployment in the country. If this is not reason enough to open their eyes to the growing reality that education is your most powerful weapon against economic downturn, then nothing will. Unfortunately, many of us may find it difficult to obtain a college degree due to a variety of reasons. Financial responsibilities, national circumstances or lack of funds could pose barriers to a college education. For these individuals, the curriculum online are a huge bonus.

Online degree programs are gaining popularity not only with professionals who work at home moms, and single parents, but it’s fast becoming the chosen mode of higher education for many students as full-time much. Sloan Consortium, an organization focused on improving standards of distance education in the country, issued a report stating that 3.2 million students took at least one online course during 2005

Keeping pace with the times and to meet growing demand, many international universities now offer online degree programs. In fact, according to the National Center for Education Statistics, 66 percent of Title IV (eligible for Federal Student Aid) degree-granting institutions of postsecondary education courses offered distance education in the 2006-07 academic years.

So why students ask increasingly began to prefer online degree programs? The reasons are many. These courses are often self-learning and provide students the opportunity to design their own schedule, which works well for those who have jobs or families to support. Since then, students can access learning resources at home; they are not bound by geographical boundaries. Online degree programs are of course much cheaper than their traditional, on campus and courses available versions range from certificates to diplomas and advanced degrees such as Bachelor, Master’s, and even a Ph.D. In addition, several universities offer assistance financial to deserving students.

However, a niggling issue that remains in the heart and mind of those armed with an online degree program is their market value. Perception about online degrees has definitely changed for the better over time. According to a report published by Sloan Consortium, the percentage of university leaders who assessed the learning outcomes in online education as the same or better than face-to-face from 57 percent in 2003 to 62 percent in 2006. A survey by the Distance Education and Training Council found that 70 percent of supervisors of listed companies in line or distance learning degrees just as valuable or more valuable than traditional degrees in the same field. However, one must consider the fact that some online degrees are more easily adopted by other employers. These degrees in health care, business and technology.

With the change in perception and acceptance increasingly online degrees, the world is yours to conquer. All you need to do is make sure you earn the degree from a renowned university institutes and avoid bad or diploma mills.


Studying The Fun Way

Does your child find studies boring? Is it a challenge for you to get him to sit for studies? Do you find it difficult to make your kid complete his homework?

Not at all surprising! Don’t worry there is nothing wrong with you or your kid. It is a task for parents and teachers around the world to keep their children and students interested in studies. Most researches show that the fact that students today have ready access to different avenues of fun and entertainment has contributed to the disinterest in studies. So what can be done to tackle this problem? Is there a solution where studies and fun can be combined?

Today there are many online study websites that help parents overcome this challenge. These online study sites combine study with fun that infuses excitement into an otherwise boring syllabus. They provide exercises prepared by professionals with extensive educational expertise, ensuring that the quality of education is never compromised. At the same time the team of experts try to keep these exercises fun.

These online tools help students enhance their skills over a short period of time by doing online exercises giving them a unique learning experience. Through the help of this online Learning Centre students have access to specially designed exercises for 5th Grade Math, 6th Grade Math, 7th Grade Math and 8th Grade Math covering most of the curriculum. These online tools are most effective in helping your child learn the fun way and ensuring that he is always scoring high in his academics.

These tools also keep students motivated by letting them have a peek in to what their peers are doing and where they stand. A unique ranking system helps the student to compare his performance with that of his peers and motivates them to continue to work hard to achieve better results. To further help the students who find a particular subject or a topic difficult there are online tutorial videos which can be referred to. These videos prepared by experts help solve most doubts in a student’s mind and help him understand the subject better without stressing too much. To add to this, there is an option of earning reward points for the exercises done which can be exchanged for actual prizes. This is definitely an added boost to ensure that the exercises are done and done well.

As a parent this is a great option for you. These online study tools give you complete control over your child’s education. You are not only more involved in your child’s academics but you will also be able to keep track of your child’s progress. Most of these sites take utmost care of your child’s online safety so you can relax as they study online.

Now that you know how you can help your child study the fun way, why not login and register on an online study website and get started and see the results for yourself. There are many websites available where you can register for free or for a nominal fee, one such website is that not only makes learning fun but also rewarding. So come let’s help our kids start studying the fun way.

online education

Mcsa Exam: 70-290 Managing And Maintaining A Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment

After you study your text books it is important to test your newly acquired knowledge and see just how well you have absorbed the material. Practice exams….

* Reinforces what you learnt – fill in the gaps of what you missed
* Gets you used to answering questions to build confidence and familiarity

Here are 10 Multiple choice exams questions for you to practice on:


Question 1# – You are the network administrator for . You have recently transferred 200 employees from one office to another.

You need to move the user accounts for these users from one Organizational Unit to another in the most efficient manner within your Windows Server 2003 Active Directory network. In order to perform this task from the command line, what is the correct command that you will need to use?

A. dsmod
B. dsmove
C. dsget
D. dsput


Question 2# – You are the network administrator for . The network consists of a single Active Directory domain . All network servers run Windows Server 2003.

Your network includes a shared folder named projectDocs. This folder must not be visible in a browse list. However, users report that they can see projectDocs when they browse for shared folders. How should you solve this problem?

A. Modify the share permissions to remove the All – Read permission on projectDocs from the Users group.

B. Modify the NTFS permissions to remove the Allow – Read permissions on projectDocs from the Users group.

C. Change the share name to Sales Resources#.

D. Change the share name to Sales Resources$.


Question 3# – You are the systems administrator for a small company that has only 1 printer. The HR department only uses the printer on Monday to print paychecks that are due on Tuesday, however, while the checks are printing the printer is tied up and nobody else can print. Which of the following is the easiest and most efficient solution to this problem?

A. Create another printer and assign a priority of 99 to it and instruct the HR department to send the paychecks to this newly created printer

B. Configure each of the drivers to print directly to the printer

C. Add another printer in the Add Printer Wizard that points to the same print device. Make this printer available between the hours of 5pm and 5am. Instruct the HR Department to use this printer for printing checks


Question 4# – Out of the following, identify a feature of basic disk.

A. Enables you to set aside space to arrange data

B. Allows you to configure unlimited number of volumes per disk

C. Enables you to combine noncontiguous unallocated space into one partition

D. Enables you to create fault-tolerant disks


Question 5# – You want to perform multiple backups of only those files that are modified since the last normal backup. You also want to ensure that the backed up files use minimum amount of media. In this case, you will take a:

A. Normal backup
B. Differential backup
C. Incremental backup
D. Copy backup


Question 6# – Special permissions can be reached by using the Advanced Tab on the Permissions Property sheets. What does the special permission ?Delete Subfolders and Files? include? Choose all that apply

A. Full Control
B. Modify
C. Read and Execute
D. List Folder Contents
E. Read
F. Write


Question 7# – The System Monitor interface provides the ability to monitor system performance using which of the following methods? Choose all that apply

A. Graphs
B. Logs
C. Alerts


Question 8# – A volume spans multiple disks on a Windows Server 2003 computer named Server1. A hardware failure has occurred and you need to allow access to the volume while Server1 is being repaired. In this situation, it is most appropriate to:

A. use the Disk Management utility to recover the volume on Server1

B. move all the dynamic disks containing parts of the volume to another Windows Server 2003 computer and import the disks in the disk group on the target computer

C. import some of the dynamic disks of the volume into another disk group on Server1.

D. move some of the disks containing parts of the volume to another computer and delete the volume on Server1


Question 9# – you assign a user a quota of 50mb on the company server. Th user attemps to copy a compressed folder containing 40mb of compressed data to the partition on the server. The operation will not complete and the user receives an error message that he has run out of disk space. How do you correct this problem while maintaining a limit for the user?

A. Disk quotas and compression are incompatible. The user must uncompress his files before copying them to the server

B. Disable the Deny Disk Space to users exceeding quota limit option

C. Find out the size of his data when it is uncompressed and increase his quota to that amount


Question 10# – the Disk Management MMC snap-in interface allows?

A. Disk initialization
B. Formatting of volumes (NTFS and FAT)
C. The creation of fault-tolerant disk systems
D. All the above



MCSA Question 1# – Correct Answers: A

MCSA Question 2# – Correct Answers: D

MCSA Question 3# – Correct Answers: C

MCSA Question 4# – Correct Answers: A

MCSA Question 5# – Correct Answers: C

MCSA Question 6# – Correct Answers: A

MCSA Question 7# – Correct Answers: A,B,C

MCSA Question 8# – Correct Answers: B

MCSA Question 9# – Correct Answers: C

MCSA Question 10# – Correct Answers: D


Brocade Certification Training: Your Key To Achieving The Job

Brocade, one of the world?s biggest companies for data center networking and shared storage solutions, offer any individual who specializes in Information Technology to take any of its offered Brocade Certifications. Undoubtedly, having a Brocade Certification qualifies any IT professional for Storage Area Network (SAN) expertise. Leading corporations in different parts of the world prefer their members to have these kinds of prestigious certifications as proof of their skill and ability to perform their job well.
Brocade Education Certification Programs being offered in different certification centers online worldwide are:

Brocade Certified Fabric Professional (BCFP) ? To demonstrate the ability in various Brocade products and to show proficiency in Brocade hardware.
Brocade Certified SAN Designer (BCSD) ? Involves the building a Data Center Fabric. Needed for this is the deep understanding of SAN design and solutions.
Brocade Certified Fabric Designer (BCFD) ? The skill needed for this is the ability to show expertise in DCF designs and solutions
Brocade Certified SAN Manager (BCSM) ? This is best taken by professionals in post-sales, implementation, technical support, SAN management or for customer engineers.
Brocade Certified Architect for FICON (BCAF) ? For IT professionals who can design, install, configure, maintain, manage, and troubleshoot Brocade hardware and software products for local and metro distance environments. This one is best taken by those in pre-sales, support, designer, or a professional services consultant.

The Brocade Exams are offered mostly online but worldwide. Being able to pass any of these exams entitles the IT specialist to receive worldwide recognition in the IT industry. Certifications in Brocade may also be acquired to support other IT related certifications.
Brocade Certification Trainings are also being offered for the preparation of the actual Brocade exams. Only authorized training centers can provide these certification programs. In order to adapt to the different demands of students worldwide, Brocade has provided different means and different approaches including Web-based training. Study guides and additional exam resources are also provided.

These brocade exam training programs and certifications are all in line with each IT professional individual career goals. Many companies also sponsor their employees some of these certifications as part of their career growth. Those certified can be expected to expertly design, implement, support, and manage SANs using Brocade switches, directors and backbones thus, preparing them for more challenging jobs in the Information technology industry that is still booming worldwide.
Taking these preparatory trainings and passing the actual examination provide the individual the IT edge over thousands of performing IT professionals.


Cisco Certification: Becoming A Truly Valuable Ccna

I’ve been active in the Cisco Certification track for four years, working my way from the CCNA to the coveted Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert title, and during that time I’ve conducted job interviews and casual conversations with hundreds of CCNAs and CCNA candidates.

The CCNA is an exciting beginning to your Cisco career, but just having the certification simply isn’t enough. A recruiter or interviewer isn’t going to be impressed just with the cert you’ve got to have some real-world knowledge to back it up.

I’ve been down that road myself, and sat on both sides of the CCNA job interview table. With that in mind, I’d like to offer to you some tips on becoming a truly valuable and employable CCNA.

Get some hands-on experience. I know the trap well. You can’t get experience until you get a CCNA, and you can’t get a CCNA without real experience. Well, actually, you can, but do you want to? Working on simulators is fine to a certain extent, but don’t make the classic mistake of depending on them. I’ve seen plenty of CCNAs who were put in front of a set of routers and really didn’t know what to do or how to put together a simple configuration, and had NO idea how to begin troubleshooting.

There are CCNA classes that offer you the chance to work with industry experts on real Cisco equipment. Beyond that, you can put together your own CCNA rack for less than $1000 by buying used routers. Some people think that’s a lot of money, but this is the foundation of your career. Treat it that way. The work you do now is the most important work you’ll ever do. Do it on real Cisco equipment. The skills I learned as a CCNA helped me all the way up to the CCIE.

Besides, after you get your CCNA (and after that, hopefully you’ll choose to pursue the CCNP), you can always get some of your money back by selling the equipment. The hands-on experience you gain this way is invaluable.

Know binary math. Do NOT go the easy route of memorizing a subnet mask chart for the CCNA exam. I know some people brag about being able to pass the CCNA exam without really understanding binary math. I’ve seen those people on the other side of the interview table, and they’re not laughing when I ask them to do a subnetting question. They’re not laughing when they can’t explain or create a VLSM scheme. That chart does nothing to help you understand what’s going on.

If you can add and know the difference between a one and a zero, you can do binary math. Don’t let the name intimidate you. Become a REAL CCNA — learn binary math !

Run “show” and “debug” commands. No commands help you truly understand how things work in a Cisco network than show and debug commands. As you progress through the Cisco certification ranks, you’ll be glad you started using these at the CCNA level.

Do you need to know these commands for the exam? Probably not. Do you need them to be successul in the real world? Absolutely.

The Cisco certification track has been great to me, and it can boost your career as well, whether you stop at the CCNA, CCNP, or go all the way to the CCIE. It’s the skills you develop today that will truly make you a networking engineer. Don’t take shortcuts or get the attitude of “just passing the exam”.

It’s what you achieve after the exam that counts, and it’s the work you put in before passing the exam that makes those achievements possible.

Good luck !

Chris Bryant, CCIE #12933

online education

How To Develop Skills By Using Blackberry Bcx-812 Certification Course?

This blackberry BCX-812 certification examination program can be said as the development of web applications for the blackberry platform. This certification is designed for the candidates who wish to enhance their skills as well as knowledge on blackberry solutions. This certification also helps the candidates to get in to separate field that is apart from the mobile application as well as mobile devices.

Prerequisites for blackberry BCX-812 examination:

In order to write the blackberry BCX-812 examination, candidates should hold their certification with at least a passing score with blackberry BCX or BCP-810 examination. Apart from that candidates should have some knowledge on the following aspects and they are mandatory as well.
1) At least 2 to 3 years of work experience in the web development
2) At least 1 year of work experience in blackberry solution
3) Some training as per the exam guide
4) Should be familiar with the product documentation
5) Should have knowledge on accessing blackberry developer resources

Exam objectives for blackberry BCX-812:

The following are the exam objectives as well as the weightings of questions that will be asked during the examination and they are:

1) Optimization of blackberry enterprise solution- 13% questions
2) Browsers of blackberry- 10% of questions
3) Development of blackberry enterprise solution- 33% of questions
4) Web development tools for blackberry- 17% of questions
5) Widgets for blackberry- 20% of questions
6) Architecture- 7% of questions.

Exam structure and fee:

The exam fee is approximately 150 USD and it can be registered as well as scheduled as per your convenience by paying fee online in the blackberry website. Total time allotted for the examination is around 4 hours with 120 questions (on an average). All questions will be asked with multiple choices and also with drag drop questions.